Market Applications
THE Problem
Potable water is an essential resource that will continue to become less accessible.

However, there is an abundance of seawater at our disposal. Freshwater limited countries like Saudi Arabia rely heavily on water desalination to keep up with demand. Also, the demand for seawater desalination is increasing globally and includes most southwestern states in the United States, India, and China.
Conventional seawater desalination recover only 30%–60% of the water they take in as freshwater (permeate). The permeate is then sent out for residential, commercial, and industrial uses.

The remaining amount of the processed seawater (the rejectate, which is a high-salinity brine), is pumped back into the sea daily, with unknown consequences.
The Solution
Combining our ZLD and Mineral Extraction system with current technologies, like reverse osmosis, provides both economic and environmental value.

High-purity minerals extracted selectively from the rejectate can can provide multiple additional revenue streams that can subsidize, partly or entirely, the overall operational costs of the desalination process. Additionally, extracting the minerals and salts from processed seawater minimizes the environmental footprint because little to no high-salinity water will be pumped back into the sea or subsurface.
THE Problem
Geothermal Brine
As part of geothermal energy power production, geothermal brine is pumped into the surface, and the intense heat within the Earth converts it into steam that drives generator turbines to create electricity. This process is also an effective way to mine lithium from thousands of feet underground.
Geothermal electricity production is already environmentally friendly due to its small physical footprint; its renewable, weather-independent, and virtually carbon-free process; and its ability to repurpose the brine for further production. However, mining lithium is a viable way to maximize the value of this process.

However, the high CAPEX needed for current technologies is a significant barrier; there is only one plant in the U.S. actively extracting lithium from geothermal brine.
The Solution
The direct integration of our solution into the geothermal brine can be done after the geothermal fluids pass the flash tank or heat exchanger stage.

Our technology benefits from the abandoned heat in a typical geothermal site, which can optimize energy consumption even further. Unlike the seawater desalination application, the target would be a smaller amount of minerals (mainly lithium and magnesium). The SSWE and SSFP sequence can be adjusted to maximize mineral extraction and maintain the brine in a fluid phase to be injected back into the reservoir to avoid depleting it.
THE Problem
Oil & Gas Brine
Brine and wastewater are an unfortunate side effect of oil and gas extraction.

Large volumes of wastewater are associated with oil and gas wells due to the hydraulic fracking process and the constant stream of co-produced water. This water is typically contaminated when it returns to the surface and needs to be properly stored, treated, and disposed.
The water can contain high amounts of salt, radioactive elements, and toxic metals that can be devastating to the environment if spills occur. The current disposal methods include injecting wastewater back into the subsurface or below the water table.
The Solution
Depending on the contents of the oil and gas co-produce, our technology can be utilized to start separating the heavy metal content from the stream first and then separate other minerals.

This valuable stream of metal and minerals can be recycled in the field operations or sold for an additional revenue stream. These minerals may include bromine, potassium chloride, gypsum, and lithium (if naturally present in sufficient quantity). Additionally, this allows for more environmentally friendly water management procedures in the oil and gas industry.
THE Problem
Industrial Wastewater
Industrial wastewater is the aqueous discard that results from substances having been dissolved or suspended in water, typically during the industrial manufacturing process or the cleaning activities that take place along with that process.

Current methods to treat industrial wastewater include oxidation, distillation, adsorption, vitrification, incineration, chemical immobilization, and landfill disposal. Most methods produce "cleaner" water to be repurposed but fail to extract the value from the industrial wastewater.
The Solution
Our technology can be used as an additional stage to existing industrial wastewater treatment processes and introduces the ability to extract minerals from the streams.

Depending on the wastewater, the extracted mineral can be very valuable (such as lithium). Our technology aims to extract minerals at high purity and recover up to 95% of lithium in the waste streams. Our technology will enhance current treatment, yield more purified water at the end of the treatment, and generate an additional stream of purified minerals extracted from the wastewater to be reused or sold.